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Funnelbeaker culture in Czech Republic and Makotřasy site


Funnelbeaker culture in Bohemia is typical of the Early Eneolithic period. In Moravia and the adjacent part of Poland, it appeared already in the Early Eneolithic period, and in the Middle Eneolithic period in the territory of the Czech Republic, it persisted in Scandinavia. In Bohemia, it was preceded by the Michelsber culture, which was followed by the funnel cup culture with its Baalber phase. It continued with the Siřem phase and ended with the Salzmünd phase. At the end of the older Eneolithic, it was followed by the Baden culture on the eastern edge of Central Bohemia. The area of ​​origin is considered to be Moravia, where the early phase of the culture is evidenced by a set of findings from Božice.


The burial rite is initially skeletal, the graves are barrows with a trapezoidal enclosure, an inner stone casing with individual box burials. Later cremation was approached; ashes were placed in funnel-shaped bins.

Cult site near Makotřasy is an archaeological site east of the village of Makotřasy in Kladno district. During the construction of the Prague–Slaný road, an Eneolithic settlement from the middle of the fourth millennium BC with a square walled area with a possible cult-astronomical function was discovered here.


An Eneolithic settlement of the younger phase of the Baalber culture stage with funnel-shaped cups with an area of ​​about 100 hectares was explored in a small part in 1961 with a surface outcrop measuring 40 × 500 meters. The probe captured an approximately square fenced area diagonally. The northern side of the areal measured 300 meters, while the western side reached a length of about 320 meters. The area was entered through a seventeen-meter-wide gate in the middle of the western side, but a similar gate probably also existed on the eastern side, where the traces of the enclosure were the worst preserved. A trench four meters wide and 1.4 meters deep defined an area of ​​9.33 hectares. Storage pits, ovens and burials in settlement pits were discovered inside the enclosure. Burials in settlement pits contained the remains of more than fifty people, many of whom were children. Many were buried in a ceremonial crouching position with alms, but in a few cases there were evidence of physical violence or decapitation. There were residential cottages and graves outside the area. The construction of the square fortification was preceded by an older arched moat about 650 meters long, which protected an area with an area of ​​ten hectares by Dolanské brook southwest of the square fortification.


Makotřasy site

Makotrásy is the oldest place in the Czech Republic from which metalfoundring is known. It is substantiated by the findings of four sunken furnaces with a fragment of a ceramic crucible, slag and a piece of copper ore. Other finds include cutting knives made of Bavarian hornblende or a large dome-shaped furnace.